As Biblical scholars are well aware, no single Hebrew or Greek word in Scripture translates literally as the English word sin. Instead, the Biblical writers used the language of metaphor to illustrate the complex concept. As Christians, our understanding of sin, how we talk about it and our personal responses to it have been formed by metaphors drawn from the Biblical texts. In essence, we have absorbed some of the culture and language of the Biblical writers. It is a mark of community membership that most Christians are able to talk about and think about sin in the same or very similar ways.
Non-believers, however, belong to a different community. It is no secret that American society is becoming more secularized and religiously pluralistic. Thus, when we attempt to have spiritual conversations with people who do not share our assumptions and conceptualizations of faith, we meet cultural divides, barriers to communication. In order to share our faith, as Lamin Sannah argues, we must become translators.
We are familiar with the need to avoid “Christianese,” and some are adept at expressing Biblical truths in contemporary language. But good translators must go beyond substituting a word in the source language for one in the target language. Good translators also study the culture and the conceptualizations of the source community – in this case the Biblical cultures and languages – and those of the target community, i.e., non-believers.
This article presents an exploration of Biblical metaphors of sin, the associated implications for responses to sin, and what this entails for clear communication of the Gospel. First, it is necessary to introduce conceptual metaphors and why they matter in translation. Next, I will review conceptual metaphors of sin familiar to Christians, and then consider how our non-believing friends and neighbors may be thinking and talking about sin using examples drawn from media sources. In the end, it is my hope that we will all become better translators, equipped to bridge cultural and conceptual divides as we faithfully communicate the Good News of Jesus Christ.
Metaphors are not just for creative writing; they are the way we express complex ideas, perceive the world, and formulate plans and actions. Traditionally, a metaphor is a figure of speech that uses vocabulary from one area of experience to represent some facet of a more complex or more abstract issue, phenomenon or event. For example, “education is the key to success,” uses what we know about how keys lock and unlock doors to express the crucial role of education in achieving life goals.
While traditional metaphors are easily identifiable by their structure, Lakoff and Johnson describe a metaphor that is less easily recognized, a cognitive associative reasoning structure called a conceptual metaphor. Using data from everyday language, they argue that conceptual metaphors serve our understanding and analysis of complex issues. They illustrate how pervasive conceptual metaphor is in our speech, and ontologically therefore in our thoughts and reasoning. For example, “He attacked every weak point in my argument” expresses a perception of an argument as a battle between two sides. Lakoff and Johnson formulate the conceptual metaphor as argument is war, in the expression “attacked every weak point,” and then provocatively point out that were we part of a culture that conceptualized arguments as finely choreographed dances, our arguments would most likely be carried out very differently.
Other scholars have confirmed these ideas, demonstrating that conceptual metaphors reflect and shape the very patterns of thought and verbal expression of our daily lives. Tannen goes so far as to demonstrate that the widespread use of adversarial metaphor (like argument is war) results in adversarial behavior in the classroom, between genders, and in the legal system. And a recent medical study of responses to metaphor during cancer treatment supports the claim that how we talk about cancer is related to the steps we are willing to take to either prevent it or to treat it. Conceptual metaphors facilitate thought, perspective and verbal expression; they also affect our responses and actions.
SPEAKING OF SIN
Biblical writers did not all conceive of sin in the same way, as evidenced by the variation in vocabulary and accompanying metaphors. Many different Hebrew and Greek words are all rendered sin in our English translations, and so laypeople are mostly unaware of these differences. Expressions in Hebrew include: chata’ “to miss the mark,” aven “crooked or perverse,” ra’ “evil/violence breaking out.”  An important role of pastors and teachers is to help us understand the Biblical text and to help us learn the Biblical metaphors, which in turn teach us to think “Christianly” about sin.
For example, in Sunday School and in Church, we sing about how the blood of Jesus washes away our sins, the metaphor taught through the Hebrew kibbēs “to wash away sin.” We may also speak about the terrible burden that sinners bear, a reflection of the most frequent Old Testament phrase nāsā’ ăwōn “to bear or carry away a sin.” 
Greek expressions for sin include hamartia “to miss the mark; to err; to offend,” parabasis “trespass; to step across a line,” anomia “lawlessness, wickedness,” adikia “unrighteousness,” akatharsia “uncleanness, impurity,” and finally, apistia “unbelief.”
All of these expressions are metaphorical – their original uses and primary meanings were in archery, governing, cultic acts and philosophy. In essence, Biblical writers were using what they knew about how the world worked to illustrate and explain a concept for which there was no single term in their own language and no simple, single-faceted description for their immediate audience (and for audiences they could not have imagined). In doing so, they were building conceptual metaphors in the minds of their audience: sin is weight; sin is uncleanliness; sin is trespass; sin is lawlessness, etc.
Cognitively, once a conceptual metaphor has been established, additional reasoning and appropriate responses are associated with it. If sin is weight, we must lay it down (at the foot of the cross). If sin is uncleanliness, we look for a way to wash and be clean. If sin is trespass, we do our utmost to obey rules and follow guidelines. If sin is falling short (or missing the mark), then we have not done enough and we must try harder. By speaking (and singing) about sin and the associated reasoning and response, members of a community reinforce and reify the conceptual metaphors. Ultimately, speakers cease to be consciously aware of the conceptual metaphor, though their choice of vocabulary and behavior indicate that the metaphor is operational in their reasoning.
The Hebrew conceptual metaphor sin is weight, from the expression nāsā’ ăwōn “to bear or carry away a sin,” is translated into the English language and into American Christian culture through words like “burden” and “weighty.” The hymn There is Power in the Blood inquires, “Would you be free from the burden of sin?”  Billy Graham and many others plead, “Don’t carry your burden of sin any longer, but by faith believe that Jesus died for you, and receive Him into your life today.” And finally, Charles Stanley writes, “The burdens we carry come in all shapes, sizes, and varieties. Many are weighty, but there’s one load that proves even heavier–and it can be traced back to the Garden of Eden.”  These examples demonstrate how well sin is weight has been learned and incorporated into Christian reasoning and speech.
Consider a second conceptual metaphor, Sin is falling short from the Hebrew chata’ and the Greek hamartia “to miss the mark; to err; to offend.” Though it is far from being the only source of the concept of standards in Scripture, when words like sin, standards and punishment appear together, the speaker is likely reasoning through the conceptual metaphor, as in Francis Chan’s explanation, “God is the only being who is good, and the standards are set by Him. Because God hates sin, He has to punish those guilty of sin. Maybe that’s not an appealing standard. But to put it bluntly, when you get your own universe, you can make your own standards.”
In keeping with Sin is falling short, John Piper recently compiled a list that includes “[Sin is] the glory of God not honored… The holiness of God not reverenced…The greatness of God not admired…The power of God not praised…The truth of God not sought…The commandments of God not obeyed….” 
On the other hand, the adage “If at first you don’t succeed, try and try again” illustrates what Euro-Americans believe is an appropriate response to missing the mark. It is not a big deal. Our culture teaches us to pick ourselves back up (by our own bootstraps), and get back to it! In fact, failure is touted by some successful businessmen and other well-known figures as an experience that imparts wisdom and contributes to growth. Missing the mark is not a cosmic sin; it is part of practicing to succeed. The point is that even Christians are susceptible to misunderstanding the concept of sin because of conflicting conceptual metaphors drawn from more than one culture.
DOES THE SHOE FIT?
Consider again the conceptual metaphor taught through the Hebrew kibbēs “to wash away sin” illustrated by the words of William Cowper: “There is a fountain filled with blood drawn from Emmanuel’s veins; and sinners plunged beneath that flood lose all their guilty stains.”  In a culture with a sacrificial system and deep understanding of ritual purity or uncleanliness, this expression communicates appropriately. However, the dominant Euro-American culture has no traditional or cultural equivalent to blood sacrifice. It is possible to argue that classical mythologies from Egyptian, Greek or European cultures, or even those from indigenous Indian cultures employ the concept of blood sacrifice. However, those mythologies and the activities of ritual sacrifice are not part of our everyday lives. An effective metaphor is drawn from a domain the members of the community know well from personal experience. When showering after a workout or washing our hands before dinner is the closest we come to washing away uncleanliness, it is valid to ask whether even Christians understand the conceptual metaphor sin is uncleanliness.
Despite our lack of everyday experience with ritual purity, even contemporary artists such as Matt Redman continue to write on that motif: “What can wash us pure as snow? Forever welcomed as the friends of God; well there’s nothing but Your blood; Nothing but Your blood, King Jesus.”  And as much as we love these songs it is important to recognize that we had to be taught how to think about Christ’s blood sacrifice, and even to feel the power and joy of release because of it. sin is uncleanliness is not “native” to our linguistic and cultural training, how much more the metaphor of washing in someone’s blood. The closest Euro-American metaphor bloodbath is one of combat and violence rather than of cleansing and purity. It is worth considering how well even Christians truly understand it, let alone non-believers to whom the Gospel is presented with these images.
Another metaphor to examine consists of enslavement and captivity. They are present throughout the Biblical narrative as consequences for disobedience, though to my knowledge none of the Hebrew or Greek terms translated sin refers precisely to those terms.  Enslavement and captivity have traditionally held deep meaning for the African American community, which may account for much use of the conceptual metaphor Sin is captivity in many contexts from famous civil rights speeches to beloved Gospel music. The Gospel/R&B sister duo Mary Mary sings, “Take the shackles off my feet so I can dance. I just wanna praise You. I just wanna praise You. You broke the chains, now I can lift my hands. And I’m gonna praise You.”  Whether or not members of the African American community have personally experienced captivity, it is an ever-present theme of identity, evoking historical roots and even current social struggles.
On the other hand, for those who have no experience of physical captivity, Sin is captivity is another conceptual metaphor that may not be part of the “native” thought and language. Again, I am not saying that concepts of captivity and enslavement are unbiblical in any way, nor that they are inappropriate for use by Christians. Many Christians have learned the metaphor and find much meaning in it. John F. MacArthur, among others, has referred to “the shackles of sin” in a number of his sermons, for example. It is beautiful figurative language, but it is a conceptual metaphor drawn from a different time and a different culture.
SAME WORDS; DIFFERENT MEANING
Many American Christians have learned to understand and to speak in Hebrew and Greek conceptual metaphor. This makes them “bilingual” to some extent, whereas members of the non-believing community are not. The depth of the conceptual divide between practicing Christians and non-believers, as well as all the ways it is rehearsed and reinforced through everyday language cannot be underestimated. Moreover, it is crucial to recognize that our inability to identify our own conceptual metaphors and those of our target audience only deepens the communicative divide even if, or perhaps especially if, we are using the same words.
There is good evidence for non-believers using traditionally Christian terms in such a way that they are redefined through the linguistic process of reappropriation. Reappropriation includes the deliberate use of words in new social and linguistic contexts in order to alter their meanings. It is often an indicator of social change. The following presentation illustrates the reappropriation of sin, sinful and sinfully, and establishment of accompanying conceptual metaphors.
First there is “Sin City,” the nickname for Las Vegas, through which Biblical interdictions against drunkenness, adultery and related behaviors have been transformed into trendy and desirable experiences. Moreover the title of a new comedy sitcom “Sin City Saints” plays on exactly this image. It is apparent that sin is entertainment, even if New York Times critic Mike Hale is less than impressed when he writes, “[Sin City] Saints,” the first scripted series from Mandalay Sports Media, throws together young-male-viewer bait — sports, Las Vegas, Silicon Valley, Malin Akerman — in a comedy less coherent than the halftime scoreboard video at an N.B.A. game.” 
Secondly, missteps or errors in judgment are categorized as sin in the following two examples. “I don’t know if blowing off the court would be such a sin in the eyes of voters as much as going after the judge’s wife with a private investigator,” is the estimation of a source quoted in an article about the re-election bid of an Arizona sheriff. And in an article from a sports columnist, “Texas fans would quickly forgive Hamilton’s sins – the relapses, the give-up swing, the “football town” comments…” These uses and others similar to them signal a shift in meaning for the word sin in everyday American reference. Rather than a penalty deserving death, sin is being redefined as a mistake, a blunder, a miscalculation.
Scattered occurrences such as these don’t seem to provide the linguistic momentum needed for reappropriation, but a search of the archives of the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times reveals noteworthy patterns in the use of the word sin. These two publications are very large, influential, and they use news services like Reuters and the Associated Press that also feed other media outlets. Thus, they provide an adequate representation of the kinds of articles distributed around the country, regardless of other aspects of their reporting. The first pattern involves a weakening or trivialization of the concept of sin, and the second depicts those who talk about the religious concept of sin as strange or outdated.
There are 2715 occurrences of sin in the New York Times “News” sections (57% of the total). Many of these instances are in articles about political parties, candidates and elected officials, as well as stories of sexual abuse by priests, and coverage of the pope and the Roman Catholic Church. This is perhaps not surprising; wrong-doing is news and wrong-doing by religious figures is even bigger news. On the other hand, the rate of occurrence in the “Arts and Entertainment” sections was higher than expected (2071 or approximately 43%).
The sin is a mistake conceptual metaphor is easily identifiable in these sections. For example, singer Jamie Foxx’s comment that his weak performance of the National Anthem “was not a sin against America” was picked up by numerous media outlets and also tweeted.  The use of sin in reporting about arts and entertainment in combination with the conceptual metaphor sin is a mistake (or a minor offense) trivializes the meaning of sin.
The second pattern is evident in the way people who talk about sin as a religious concept are presented as newsworthy. One article describes a man who carries a “worn black Bible,” who “believes Scripture is unequivocal,” and who says that “homosexual behavior is a sin.”  Another article portrays the antics of a North Carolina man who “passed out fliers with Bible verses extolling nakedness as a way to cleanse oneself of sin.”  And a third article documents the arguments of a Utah state senator who wants to use cannabis: “As long as I’m not committing a sin in the process of doing this, then I’ll let my principles take me where they may.”  The quality of the beliefs of these three men is not necessarily in question. The position of each is stated more or less clearly because the writer of the article uses the subject’s own words. The point is that making a religiously-based declaration of sin is news.
Compositional elements construct a perspective that a religious belief in sin is out of the ordinary or outdated. Pictographic descriptions – the worn, black Bible, or the man standing naked in the doorway of his home – construct a character, and then he or she is quoted directly speaking about sin. The consistent format of physical descriptions of the person combined with stated opinions involving a religious belief in sin reifies the conceptual metaphor sin is outdated.
Widespread media use of sin facilitates the process of reappropriation, moving the word from the domain of religious doctrine to the area of mistakes or minor offenses. Those who continue to use the term as part of their religious belief are depicted as outdated or even freakish.
Conceptual metaphors emerging through language use in the media include: sin is entertaining (shows in Las Vegas), sin is a mistake (the misbehavior of a baseball player, a song off-key), and sin is for religious fanatics (nakedness and cleansing from sin?). In short, sin is not serious. In contrast, when something is described as sinful, it is tasty, tantalizing and trendy as in the following examples.
A newspaper description of the actual delicatessen depicted in the movie “When Harry Met Sally” includes these menu items: “matzo ball soup, chopped liver with onions, hot pastrami sandwiches and sinful cheesecake.”  A New York Times article about a local bakery describes “sinfully sweet rings.”  The top ten hits of a Google search using the string “sinfully rich” reveals eight that describe a chocolate dessert; the other two describe Italian pasta dishes. In other words, sin is delicious (and perhaps high in calories).
Another article announces a physical trainer service called SIN. The article explains that this is an acronym for “Strength in Numbers,” yet the lack of punctuation between the letters indicates that the name was probably designed to result in a catchy acronym. Investigating name brand choices that involve sin and related words like sinful and sinfully is beyond the scope of this article. Even so, the reappropriation of sin-type words in marketing is noteworthy because of its contribution to the formation of conceptual metaphors.
Sinfulcolors.com sells vibrant nail polish, stickers and manicure tips. Comfortable yet fashionable women’s clothing is available through Sinful Clothing for Women: “Sinful clothing for women make a bold fashion statement of strength and beauty infused with a heavy dose of rock n’ roll and a sophisticated twist.”  In other words, sin is fashionable.
These conceptual metaphors are powerful because we become so accustomed to using them in our perception and reasoning that we cease to be aware of them. They are also powerful because they represent the shared assumptions of a community about the nature of reality; they are products of culture. The examples and discussion so far have revealed two cultures divided by their conceptualization of sin.
|Christian Metaphors||Non-believer Metaphors|
|sin is weight||sin is entertainment|
|sin is uncleanliness||sin is a mistake|
|sin is trespass||sin is for religious fanatics|
|sin is falling short||sin is not serious|
|Sin is crookedness||sin is delicious|
|Sin is captivity||sin is fashionable|
This leaves us with the question of how to cross the cognitive and cultural divide when we speak about sin. Though both communities are using the English language, we are experiencing the challenge of cross-cultural communication.
Translation is required if we are to faithfully and accurately communicate the role of human sin in the Gospel story. To their credit, some pastors and teachers have looked for other conceptual metaphors in their attempts to communicate to non-believing culture. For example, A.W. Tozer uses the conceptual metaphor Sin is bad stewardship: “A man by his sin may waste himself, which is to waste that which on earth is most like God. This is man’s greatest tragedy and God’s heaviest grief.”  This conceptual metaphor speaks to the American value system that includes an appreciation for return on investment, efficiency and good management.
Another conceptual metaphor underlies this phrase attributed to St. Augustine, more a summary statement from Confessions than a precise quotation. “Sin is looking for the right thing in the wrong place.”  It appears to be an adaptation of the conceptual metaphor Sin is falling short from the Hebrew chata’ and the Greek hamartia “to miss the mark,” but it is applied it to a different kind of activity: Sin is a mistaken search.
If nothing else, attention to the power of conceptual metaphor makes for valuable teaching moments, as the following excerpt illustrates. Jerry Bridges first reveals the conceptual metaphor sin is an enemy before arguing against it because of its effects on reasoning and behavior.
“Too often, we say we are defeated by this or that sin. No, we are not defeated. We are simply disobedient. It might be good if we stop using the terms victory and defeat to describe our progress in holiness. Rather, we should use the terms obedience and disobedience. When I say I am defeated by some sin, I am unconsciously slipping out from under my responsibility. I am saying something outside of me has defeated me. But when I say I am disobedient, that places the responsibility for my sin squarely on me. We may in fact be defeated, but the reason we are defeated is because we have chosen to disobey. (Pursuit of Holiness, 84)
As asserted early in this discussion, conceptual metaphors do more than facilitate thought, perspective and verbal expression; they also affect our responses and actions. And the link between an understanding of sin, and behavior regarding sin is essential for the integrity of our Christian message. This is why it is crucial that a conceptual metaphor communicate completely across the cultural divide. This final example appears to achieve that goal using words drawn from everyday language: “The crumbled pieces of the Fall are all around us: broken people, shattered families, and fragmented communities. We know that this is not the way it is supposed to be, but we too often struggle to know how to respond…” 
“Broken,” “shattered” and “fragmented” are inchoative verbs expressing a change of state – an effect beyond a mistake, more serious than entertainment, and immediately relevant rather than old-fashioned. The paragraph’s dominant conceptual metaphor sin is brokenness expresses a dilemma that both Christians and non-believers understand from their experience in everyday life. Broken things need repair; broken people need help. Moreover, a broken object generally cannot repair itself. It needs someone more able and whole to return the object to its original, intended state. This conceptual metaphor works because it successfully associates common understandings with a behavioral response that is faithful to the Biblical concept of sin.
The cultural divide between Christians and non-believers is readily apparent in the ways that members of each community speak about sin. Christian understanding is complicated by conceptual metaphors drawn from languages and cultures foreign to our own. Even so, we have learned them so well that we no longer clearly recognize the conceptual metaphors so useful in reasoning and speaking about, and responding to sin. On the other hand, the non-believing community has reappropriated sin and words related to it with the result that Christians and non-believers may use the same word, but access different conceptual metaphors in the interpretation of meaning. The communicative challenge before us is to look for the life experiences we all have in common in order to develop shared conceptual metaphors that clearly communicate the complex nature of sin, as well as the appropriate, Biblically-based responses.
 Lamin Sanneh, Translating the Message: The Missionary Impact on Culture. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989).
 George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (University of Chicago Press, 1980).
 Throughout this article I follow Lakoff and Johnson’s convention of small capitals for the format of conceptual metaphor.
 Cf. Zoltan Kovecses, Metaphor: A Practical Introduction, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 2010).
 Deborah Tannen, The Argument Culture: Stopping America’s War of Words (NY: Ballantine Books, 1998).
 David J. Hauser and Norbert Schwarz, “The War on prevention: Bellicose Cancer Metaphors Hurt (Some) Prevention Intentions,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 41 (2014): 66-77.
 Harold L. Willmington, Willmington’s Guide to the Bible (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1981), 718-726.
 Gary A. Anderson, Sin: A History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995), 16-17.
 Lewis E. Jones, There is Power in the Blood (1899). Online: http://www.cyberhymnal.org/htm/t/h/therepow.htm.
 Charles Stanley, “The Burden of Sin,” Christian Post, October 14, 2012. Online: http://www.christianpost.com/news/the-burden-of-sin-83248.
 Francis Chan with Danae Yankoski, Crazy Love: Overwhelmed by a Relentless God (David C. Cook, 2008), 36.
 John Piper, “What is Sin? The Essence and Root of All Sinning.” n.p. Online: http://www.desiringgod.org/conference-messages/the-origin-essence-and-definition-of-sin.
 I use “Euro-American” to acknowledge that American culture is not a monolithic whole, and that the American cultural system I know best and can speak from has been heavily influenced by its northern European ancestry.
 Thomas Edison’s 1,000 attempts to invent the incandescent bulb are frequently cited as an example of failures that lead to success.
 William Cowper, There is a Fountain Filled with Blood (1772). Online: http://www.cyberhymnal.org/htm/t/f/tfountfb.htm.
 Matt Redman, Nothing But The Blood, (ThankYou Music, 2004). Online: http://worshiptogether.com/songs/nothing-but-the-blood-redman/.
 Note that while the historical captivity of Israel in Egypt, as well as exile and enslavement in Assyria are related to sin and punishment narratives in Scripture, the closest term used in Scripture is the Greek aphesis ‘dismissal, release or pardon (from debt)’ (from Mark 1:4).
 Erika Atkins, Tina Atkins and Warryn Campbell, “Shackles (Praise You),” Thankful (1999).
 Cf. John F. MacArthur, Jr. Christ is Everything, n.p. [preached 29 August1993]. Online: http://www.gty.org/resources/sermons/80-120/christ-is-everything.
 Mike Hale, ‘Sin City Saints,’: A Yahoo Basketball Comedy,” New York Times (March 22, 2015). Online: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/23/arts/television/review-sin-city-saints-a-yahoo-basketball-comedy.html?_r=0.
 Jacques Billeaud and Ryan Van Velzer, “Arizona Sheriff’s Re-election Chances Called into Question,” Los Angeles Times (April 25, 2015). Online: http://www.latimes.com/nation/sns-bc-us–arizona-sheriff-racial-profiling-20150424-story.html.
 Kevin Sherrington, “What do the Rangers Have to Lose by Bringing Back Hamilton?” Los Angeles Times (April 25, 2015). Online: http://www.latimes.com/sports/sns-tns-bc-bba-sherrington-column-20150425-story.html.
 This may be in part because of the nickname for Las Vegas – “Sin City,” and also due to Spanish language titles of art performances, as well as other Spanish language articles (sin means “without” in Spanish).
 Christie D’Zurilla, “Jamie Foxx Says His National Anthem was ‘Off’ But Not ‘a Sin Against America’.” Los Angeles Times (May 5, 2015). Online: http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/gossip/la-et-mg-jamie-foxx-explains-national-anthem-mayweather-pacquiao-20150505-story.html.
 Erik Eckholm, “Opponents of Gay Marriage Ponder Strategy as Issue Reaches Supreme Court,” New York Times (April 22, 2015). Online: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/23/us/opponents-of-gay-marriage-ponder-strategy-as-issue-reaches-supreme-court.html.
 Greg Lacour, “Naked North Caroline Man Irks Neighbors, but Police Say No Crime,” New York Times (March 24, 2015). Online: http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2015/03/24/us/24reuters-usa-north-carolina-naked.html.
 Daniel Wallis, “Utah Lawmaker Invokes Morman Prophet Grandpa in Medical Pot Plea,” New York Times (April 22, 2015). Online: http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2015/04/22/us/22reuters-usa-marijuana-utah.html.
 Joe Yogerst, “Have Yourself a Treat With These Famous Movie Eateries,” Los Angeles Times (August 13, 2014). Online: http://www.latimes.com/brandpublishing/travelplus/summerseries/la-ss-have-yourself-a-treat-dto-20140813-story.html.
 Susan M. Novick, “Where Those Sinfuly Sweet Rings are Made Locally,” New York Times (October 25, 2009), LI11.
 Courtney Rubin, “For That Door-to-Treadmill Serivce,” New York Times (Dec. 17, 2014). Online: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/18/style/for-that-door-to-treadmill-service.html.
 A.W. Tozer, The Root of the Righteous (Harrisburg, PA: Christian Publications, 1955), 99.
 Augustine Confessions (trans. by Henry Chadwick; Oxford University Press, 1991). Quote accessed online: https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/6819578.Augustine_of_Hippo.
 Matt Lucas, “Picking Up the Pieces,” Corban University theme description, 2014.